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A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member. The term column applies especially to a large round support (the shaft of the column) with a capital and a base or pedestal[1] and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is typically called a post, and supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are usually called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are often termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features.
Adjustable Props Our wide experience in the domain of hiring and supplying the most comprehensive range of advanced quality Adjustable Props. These Heavy duty Adjustable Props are specially designed by experts to offer the best support to a wide collection of floors, slabs, walls, columns and temporary beams. Our Steel Adjustable Props has threaded external tube with internal tube and intermediate holes that gives the desirable extended sizes. High quality Automatic Adjustable Props automatically cleans the threads of dirt, cement and other foreign substances that hamper quick and easy adjustment. The compatible holes of Adjustable Prop on base plates and head plates of 150*150mm helps in double staging when require. These Heavy duty Adjustable Props are procured from leading manufacturers and suppliers that never compromise with the quality of products. Features •Steel tubes continuous welded •Conforms to IS 1239/1161 YST 210 •Outer 60.3 mm OD – 50 mm NB Medium •Heavy duty Props with “C” class Medium •Props used beyond 3.65 Mtrs. Inner must be braced by tube and coupler •Economy props outer 50.8 mm OD, Inner 42.2 mm OD •Infinite adjustment •Reliable strength and safety •Erected in seconds •Long life •Size: 7’-12’ and 10’3"-18’0"
We are the one of the best scaffolding hiring company , today, metal scaffolding is the norm. It’s lightweight without compromising strength. Tube scaffolding is quick and easy to assemble without the need for nuts and bolts. The metals used for scaffolding are typically steel. Steel scaffolding has great strength and durability. At the same time it has a certain amount of elasticity which helps prevent cracks. Steel can support very heavy loads, and workers can use it to transport heavy equipment and supplies. For tall structures, steel is a necessity as the weight of the scaffolding itself requires structural strength that only steel can provide. For less demanding conditions, aluminum scaffolding can be a viable alternative. With the use of metal scaffolding, workers are able to safely access high and remote locations. By incorporating diagonal bracing, structures of great stability can be built. Metal scaffolding structures have three basic elements: Standards Ledgers Transforms The standards are the vertical tubes which run throughout the entire structure and keep it upright. They transfer the weight of the structure to the ground via a square base plate which spreads the load. The ledgers are the horizontal tubes connecting the standards to keep the structure in place and ensure stability. The transoms are horizontal tubes placed across and perpendicular to the ledgers to give the structure more strength and to provide a support for the platforms on each level of the scaffold.
SCAFFOLDING: Scaffolding, also called scaffold [1] or staging, [2] is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures. Scaffolds are widely used on site to get access to heights and areas that would be otherwise hard to get to.[3] Unsafe scaffolding has the potential to result in death or serious injury. Scaffolding is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects. There are five main types of scaffolding used worldwide today. These are Tube and Coupler (fitting) components, prefabricated modular system scaffold components, H-frame / facade modular system scaffolds, timber scaffolds and bamboo scaffolds (particularly in China). Each type is made from several components which often include: A base jack or plate which is a load-bearing base for the scaffold. The standard, the upright component with connector joins. The ledger, a horizontal brace. The transom, a horizontal cross-section load-bearing component which holds the batten, board, or decking unit. Brace diagonal and/or cross section bracing component. Batten or board decking component used to make the working platform. Coupler, a fitting used to join components together. Scaffold tie, used to tie in the scaffold to structures. Brackets, used to extend the width of working platforms
EARTH RAMMER: The compressive strength of rammed earth is a maximum of 4.3 MPa (620 psi). This is less than that of concrete but more than sufficiently strong for domestic edifices.[4] Indeed, properly constructed rammed earth endures for thousands of years, as many ancient structures that are still standing around the world demonstrate.[5] Rammed earth reinforced with rebar, wood, or bamboo can prevent collapse caused by earthquakes or heavy storms, [citation needed] because unreinforced edifices of rammed earth resist earthquake damage extremely poorly. See 1960 Agadir earthquake for an example of the total destruction which may be inflicted on such structures by an earthquake. Adding cement to soil mixtures poor in clay can also increase the load-bearing capacity of rammed-earth edifices.[citation needed] The United States Department of Agriculture observed in 1925 that rammed-earth structures endure indefinitely and can be constructed for less than two-thirds of the cost of standard frame houses.[6] Soil is a widely available, inexpensive, and sustainable resource.[7] Therefore, construction with rammed earth is very viable.[vague] Unskilled labour can do most of the necessary work.[4] While the cost of rammed earth is low, rammed-earth construction without mechanical tools is very time-consuming and laborious; however, with a mechanical tamper and prefabricated formwork it can require only two or three days to construct the walls of a 200 to 220 m2 (2, 200 to 2, 400 sq ft) house.[4] One significant benefit of rammed earth is its high thermal mass: like brick or concrete, it can absorb heat during daytime and nocturnally release it.[citation needed] This action moderates daily temperature variations and reduces the need for air conditioning and heating. In colder climates, rammed-earth walls can be insulated with Styrofoam or a similar insert. It must also be protected from heavy rain and insulated with vapour barriers.[5][8] Rammed earth can effectively regulate humidity if unclad walls containing clay are exposed to an internal space. Humidity is regulated between 40% and 60%, which is the ideal range for asthma sufferers[citation needed] and for the storage of susceptible objects such as books.[citation needed] The material mass and clay content of rammed earth allows an edifice to breathe more than concrete edifices, which avoids problems of condensation but prevents significant loss of heat.[4] Untouched, rammed-earth walls have the colour and texture of natural earth. Moisture-impermeable finishes, such as cement render, are avoided because they impair the ability of a wall to desorb moisture, [citation needed] which quality is necessary to preserve its strength.[citation needed] Well-cured walls accept nails and screws easily, and can be effectively patched with the same material used to build them.[citation needed] Blemishes can be repaired using the soil mixture as a plaster and sanded smooth. The thickness, typically 30 to 35 centimetres (12 to 14 in), and density of rammed-earth walls make them suitable for soundproofing.[citation needed] They are also inherently fireproof, resistant to termite damage, and non-toxic.[citation needed]